There were statistically significant school effects on students’ depressive symptomatology; however, these were much smaller than expected. Nearly all of the variation in CESD depression scores was found to be at the student level, indicating that the potential mental health gains from reducing risk factors in school social environments may be extremely limited and have little effect on student depressive symptomatology.
Roeger, L., Allison, S., Martin, G., Dadds, V., & Keeves, J., 2001. Adolescent Depressive Symptomatology: Improve Schools or Help Students? Australian Journal of Psychology, 53: 134-139.